The knee joint is a so-called ‘hinge’ joint. When it is straight, there is only the most minimal outward movement possible due to the tight collateral ligaments supporting the knee. Only when the joint begins to bend do the collateral ligaments slacken to enable the lower leg a little more rotation movement, more outward than inward. The cruciate ligaments are responsible for making sure that the tibia bone and the femur do not shunt each other and contact between the joint surfaces are maintained.
MeniscusMenisci are the ‘shock absorbers’ of the knee joint. They are located in the joint between the upper and lower leg and catch up to 60% of the load directed towards the lower leg. A meniscus tear can result from a knee trauma and the preferred treatment for this is an arthroscopy (keyhole surgery).
Cartilage DamageThis is a common diagnosis due to the amount of strain the knee joint is frequently subjected to. It can be caused by injury, or just simple wear and tear. By repeated swelling and discomfort, treatment should be sought in the form of an arthroscopy (keyhole surgery).
Cruciate LigamentsThe knee joint is stabilized through two strong ligaments crossed through its centre; the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. The anterior cruciate ligament is ten times more likely to tear than the posterior cruciate ligament and, if this injury is not recognised, it can lean to an unstable knee as well as meniscus tears and cartilage damage. In order to stabilize the knee once more surgery is necessary to replace the anterior cruciate ligament.